Sat. Jun 3rd, 2023

In Egypt, scientists have discovered an ancient place where the process of embalming humans was completed. There is also an explanation in ancient Egyptian of how mummies were prepared.

Secrets of the human cloning process, major breakthroughs
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The site, discovered about 30 kilometers south of Cairo, dates to around 664-525 BC. This place consists of several underground rooms above ground level which are up to 30 meters deep.

Some of the materials found here are believed to have been sourced from as far south-east Asia, indicating an extensive trade network of goods required for this process.

Until now, scientists’ knowledge of mummification depended on ancient papyri texts, Greek historians, and analyzes of Egyptian mummies. From these sources it was found that it was a very complicated process that used a mixture of different oils, tree glue and tar etc. Scientists were able to explain why and where some of these substances were used, but they could not make this distinction for all ingredients. Ancient texts mentioned the names of the ingredients, but these ancient terms are difficult to translate. There is still debate as to what some of the names refer to.

Researchers could analyze the materials found in the ancient mummies, but they could not pinpoint where, why or how they were used. In a new study published Wednesday, Feb. 1, in the research journal Nature, the authors explore and analyze what researchers need to fill this knowledge gap. The new discovery contained 31 sealed boxes, still filled with remains, from a 600 BC embalming site, some of which contained instructions on how and where to use certain substances.

For example, on one box it is written that this ‘substance’ should be used to make vinegar. while on the other it is stated that it should be used for fragrance. “Before this study we had names for things, but we didn’t really know what they were,” Salima Ikram, a professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, told DW. We assumed they were something else.”

More information about the ancient Egyptian language

Saqqara, a huge ancient cemetery, has attracted archaeologists, linguists and alchemists to study it. “We classified the ingredients by identifying the chemical substances inside the vessel and matching it with the label on the outside,” Philipp Stockhammer, a professor of archeology at Germany’s Ludwig Maximilian University, said at a press briefing. “

This correlation helped researchers to understand ancient Egyptian terms from new angles. Like ‘Antio’ which was traditionally known as an unknown oil. Here the researchers found that the ‘antio’ was a compound oil mixed with animal fat that also included frankincense and cypress oil. Scientists have also found the ‘glue’ of two trees found in tropical countries, which may also belong to Southeast Asia or Africa. Both have pleasant fragrance, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties.

“This tells us that the tanning industry was essentially a step toward early globalization, because it meant you could transport these items from all over Southeast Asia,” Stockhammer said. There was a need to order from a distance.

Egypt-Europe cooperation

An analysis of these jars found in Egypt was required. But Egyptian law does not allow these ancient artifacts to be taken out of the country. The scientists worked with a local research center in Cairo to analyze the samples in Egypt itself. A co-author, Susan Beck, said at the press conference that previous research of this type has not been possible until now due to a lack of support.

Analysis of substances

To test the samples, the scientists analyzed them by following many advanced scientific and chemical methods. “Think of it in terms of the chemical fingerprint of the composition, and then each ingredient has its own chemical fingerprint,” said co-author Stephen Buckley, professor of archeology at the University of York and Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen.

“Essentially, this process separates compounds and then looks for the molecular fingerprint of individual elements, which ultimately allows researchers to identify the mummies,” he said, explaining this particular method of analyzing samples. Helped to understand the actual recipe to do.

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